What is Program?
The computer neither think nor do its job by itself. It follows the given command and gives output based on it. In fact it is not possible for any computer to work by itself. It needs a program for a thing to be done. A program is a set of instructions that are logically related to each other and arranged in a sequence that directs the computer in a solving problem.
What is Programming?
The process of writing a program is called ‘Programming’. It is an essential part or step in data processing. Any incorrect program can deliver unutilized results. There are mainly two ways to acquire a program. First is Purchase, referred as Packaged software and second is Existing program that are used to prepare a new program from scratch, referred as Customized software. Computer software are classified into two categories: System software and Application Software.
To write a program, a standard programming language is used. A programming language is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable by programmer and recognizable by a computer. Programming languages can be classified into 3 categories: High-level language, Middle-level language and Low-level language.
1. High-level languages
BASIC, COBOL (Common Business Oriented Programming Language), FORTRAN (Formula Translation Language) are the examples of High-level language that are used to write application programs.
2. Middle-level languages
C, C++, Java byte code,FORTH, Macro-assemble are examples of middle-level language. C language is used for writing application and system programs.
3. Low-level languages
Assembler is the example of Low-level language. Low-level languages were the first category of programming languages.
4. Growth of Computer languages